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  Section: Biotechnology Methods » Cell Biology and Genetics
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Sex-Linked Inheritance in Drosophila Melanogaster

Cell Biology and Genetics
  Cell Cycles
  Meiosis in Flower Buds of Allium Cepa-Acetocarmine Stain
  Meiosis in Grasshopper Testis (Poecilocerus Pictus)
  Mitosis in Onion Root Tip (Allium Cepa)
  Differential Staining of Blood
  Buccal Epithelial Smear and Barr Body
  Vital Staining of DNA and RNA in Paramecium
  Induction of Polyploidy
  Mounting of Genitalia in Drosophila Melanogaster
  Mounting of Genitalia in the Silk Moth Bombyx Mori
  Mounting of the Sex Comb in Drosophila Melanogaster
  Mounting of the Mouth Parts of the Mosquito
  Normal Human Karyotyping
  Black and White Film Development and Printing for Karyotype Analysis
  Study of Drumsticks in the Neutrophils of Females
  Study of the Malaria Parasite
  Vital Staining of DNA and RNA in Paramecium
  Sex-Linked Inheritance in Drosophila Melanogaster
  Preparation of Somatic Chromosomes from Rat Bone Marrow
  Chromosomal Aberrations
  Study of Phenocopy
  Study of Mendelian Traits
  Estimation of Number of Erythrocytes [RBC] in Human Blood
  Estimation of Number of Leucocytes (WBC) in Human Blood
  Culturing Techniques and Handling of Flies
  Life Cycle of the Mosquito (Culex Pipiens)
  Life Cycle of the Silkworm (Bombyx Mori)
  Vital Staining of Earthworm Ovary
  Culturing and Observation of Paramecium
  Culturing and Staining of E.coli (Gram’s Staining)
  Breeding Experiments in Drosophila Melanogaster
  Preparation of Salivary Gland Chromosomes
  Observation of Mutants in Drosophila Melanogaster
  ABO Blood Grouping and Rh Factor in Humans
  Determination of Blood Group and Rh Factor
  Demonstration of the Law of Independent Assortment
  Demonstration of Law of Segregation

In the majority of cases, the sex of an individual is determined by a pair of genes on the sex chromosome. Females are homozygous and males are heterozygous. Sex-linked inheritance is defined as the inheritance of somatic characters, which are linked with sex chromosomes (X and Y). The characters are described as sex-linked characters. The phenomenon of sex linkage was first observed by T.H. Morgan in 1910 while experimenting on Drosophila. Morgan observed the appearance of white eye color in males in the cultures of normal wild-eyed flies. He thus proposed the phenomenon of sex linkage.

In the present experiment, we have taken the yellow-body mutant and crossed it with an OK strain to understand the pattern of sex-linked inheritance.

  • OK strains of Drosophila melanogaster
  • Yellow-body mutants
  • Media bottles
  • Anaesthetic ether
  • Etherizer
Drosophila melanogaster: The OK strain and the yellow-body flies are cultured in standard media separately. When the pupa are ready to close the bottles, the bottles are cleaned by taking out all the flies present. From the pupa, the virgin females were isolated and aged for 2–3 days, and then the crosses are conducted as follows:
  • Yellow-body females × OK males
  • Yellow-body males × OK females
The progeny produced in the F1 are observed for phenotype and the data are recorded. Some of the yield F1 progenies were inbred to yield the F2 generation, which were also observed, and the data was recorded.

Direct Cross
yellow females × OK males
all F1 females wewe grey-bodied and males were yellow
F1 females × F1 males
grey female : grey male : yellow female : yellow male:  
46 : 61 : 51 : 50 :  
Phenotype Observed expected Deviation d2 d2/E = X
grey-bodied male
61 52 9 81 1.5
grey-bodied female
46 52 -6 36 0.6
yellow bodied female
51 52 1 1 0.01
yellow bodied male
50 52 -2 4 0.07
ΣX2 = 2.18
Degree of freedom = 4 – 1 = 3

Reciprocal Cross
yellow females × OK males
all flies are grey bodied
F1 females × F1 males
grey female : grey male : yellow female : yellow male:  
63 : 52 : 48 : 48 :  
Phenotype Observed expected Deviation d2 d2/E = X
grey-bodied male
115 122.25 7.25 52.56 0.4
grey-bodied female
yellow bodied female
48 40.75 -7.25 52.56 1.2
yellow bodied male
ΣX2 = 1.71
Degree of freedom = 3 – 1 = 2


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