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  Section: Biotechnology Methods » Cell Biology and Genetics
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Life Cycle of the Mosquito (Culex Pipiens)

Cell Biology and Genetics
  Cell Cycles
  Meiosis in Flower Buds of Allium Cepa-Acetocarmine Stain
  Meiosis in Grasshopper Testis (Poecilocerus Pictus)
  Mitosis in Onion Root Tip (Allium Cepa)
  Differential Staining of Blood
  Buccal Epithelial Smear and Barr Body
  Vital Staining of DNA and RNA in Paramecium
  Induction of Polyploidy
  Mounting of Genitalia in Drosophila Melanogaster
  Mounting of Genitalia in the Silk Moth Bombyx Mori
  Mounting of the Sex Comb in Drosophila Melanogaster
  Mounting of the Mouth Parts of the Mosquito
  Normal Human Karyotyping
  Black and White Film Development and Printing for Karyotype Analysis
  Study of Drumsticks in the Neutrophils of Females
  Study of the Malaria Parasite
  Vital Staining of DNA and RNA in Paramecium
  Sex-Linked Inheritance in Drosophila Melanogaster
  Preparation of Somatic Chromosomes from Rat Bone Marrow
  Chromosomal Aberrations
  Study of Phenocopy
  Study of Mendelian Traits
  Estimation of Number of Erythrocytes [RBC] in Human Blood
  Estimation of Number of Leucocytes (WBC) in Human Blood
  Culturing Techniques and Handling of Flies
  Life Cycle of the Mosquito (Culex Pipiens)
  Life Cycle of the Silkworm (Bombyx Mori)
  Vital Staining of Earthworm Ovary
  Culturing and Observation of Paramecium
  Culturing and Staining of E.coli (Gram’s Staining)
  Breeding Experiments in Drosophila Melanogaster
  Preparation of Salivary Gland Chromosomes
  Observation of Mutants in Drosophila Melanogaster
  ABO Blood Grouping and Rh Factor in Humans
  Determination of Blood Group and Rh Factor
  Demonstration of the Law of Independent Assortment
  Demonstration of Law of Segregation

Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Diptera
Family: Culicidae
Genus: Culex
Species: pipiens

Mosquitoes are holometabolous insects. The complete life cycle of mosquitoes takes about 13–15 days to complete.

Anopheles lays eggs horizontally and singly on the water surface. Eggs are boat-shaped, having 2 lateral air floats, which help in floatation. In Culex, the eggs are laid in clusters on the water surface, forming rafts. The egg in Culex is cigar-shaped, without lateral air floats.

The eggs hatch after 2 to 3 days, and a small transparent larvae measuring about 1 mm emerges. The larvae of mosquitoes are popularly known as wriggles. Its body is divided into head, thorax, and abdomen. The head bears a pair of compound eyes, a pair of simple eyes, a pair of 2 jointed antennae, and the chewing mouthparts. The thorax is slightly broader than the head and bears 3 pairs of lateral tufts of hair. The abdomen is segmented into 9 parts. The larva contains long respiratory siphons. It undergoes 4 moults and 5 instars.

Pupa, or tumblers, are motile. The head and thorax form the cephalothorax, which has a pair of trumpet-shaped breathing tubes. The body is commashaped. The abdomen consists of 9 segments, with palmate hair and caudal fins on the eighth segment for swimming. The pupa remains at the surface for about a day before the adult emerges. After 48 hours of the pupal stage, the pupal skin splits and the mosquito emerges as an adult.

The adult uses air pressure to break open the pupal case, and crawls to a protected area and rests while its external skeletal hardens, spreading its wings to dry. Males are smaller; mouthparts are not adapted for sucking. The abdomen is smaller. The female mosquitoes are bigger in size than the males. Their mouthparts are adapted for blood sucking, which is essential for the development of ovaries/eggs. The males feed on nectar from flowers. The thorax bears 3 pairs of legs, 1 on each segment, and a pair of wings on the mesothorax. Wings on the metathorax are modified to halters. Adult females live for a month and adult males for a week.

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