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  Section: General Biotechnology / Genes & Genetic Engineering
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Genetic Engineering for Human Welfare


Method of DNA Fingerprinting
In this technique DNA is isolated from blood stains, semen stains or hair roots of disputed children or any suspected person and the same from parents, close associates or relatives of suspected criminals (based on the cases). Since hairs contain less amount of DNA, it can be produced in a large amount by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). RBCs do not contain DNA, therefore, WBCs are the source of DNA. Thus the DNA isolated is cut with restriction enzyme and subjected to Southern blotting. The DNA bands appearing on membrane are hybridized with 32P-DNA probe, washed in water to remove unhybridized DNA, and passed through X-ray. The hybridized complementary DNA sequences develop images (prints). Identical prints that contain specific DNA sequences appearing on two X-ray films are identified and thus identity is confirmed. Probability of two persons having similar sets of base pairs in the same sequence of VNTR of DNA is one in 30-300 million individuals.


In India, facilities of DNA fingerprinting at international level are available at the Center for DNA Fingerprinting and Diagnostics (CDFD) (Hyderabad), the then Center for Cellular and Molecular Biology (CCMB) (Hyderabad). At this center the Jeffreys technique is not followed. Dr. Lalji Singh has developed an indigenous technique where 'BKM'-DNA probe is used for hybridization of DNA sequences. While he was working on sex determination in snakes in his Ph.D. programme (in BHU, Varanasi), he found a contrast result. Unlike human and other organisms, the female snake contains XY and the male YY sex chromosomes. A segment of DNA was isolated from sex determining Y chromosome of female banded krait (Bungarus fasciatus), an Indian poisonous snake. This unique segment was named as 'banded krait minor satellite' (BKM). It is similar to sex determining chromosome in humans. The probe which is used for this purpose is, therefore, called BKM-DNA probe.


Cloned genes and production of chemicals


Human peptide hormone genes














Human interferon genes


Genes for vaccines



Vaccine for hepatitis-B virus



Vaccines for Rabies virus



Vaccines for poliovirus



Vaccine for foot and mouth disease virus



Vaccines for small pox virus



Malaria vaccines



DNA vaccines


Genes associated with genetic diseases














Enzyme engineering


Commercial chemicals

Prevention, diagnosis and cure of diseases


Prevention of diseases


Diagnosis of diseases



Parasitic diseases



Monoclonal antibodies



Antenatal diagnosis


Gene therapy



Types of gene therapy



Methods of gene therapy



Success of gene therapy



Potential of gene delivering system



Future needs of gene therapy in India

DNA profiling (fingerprinting)


Methods of DNA profiling


Application of DNA profiling



Genetic databank



Reuniting the lost children



Solving disputed problems of parentage, identity of criminals, rapists, etc



Immigrant dispute


Hurdles of DNA profiling

Animal and plant improvement


Transgenic Farm Animals


Crop Improvements



Transgenic plants



Nif gene transfer



Phaseolin gene transfer



Conversion of C3 plants to C4 plants



Herbicide resistant plants



Insect pest resistant plants



Plant improvement through genetic transformation


Crop Protection



Use of antagonists



Use of insecticides

Abatement of pollution


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