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  Section: General Biotechnology / Genes & Genetic Engineering
 
 
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Genetic Engineering for Human Welfare

 
     
 

Method of DNA Fingerprinting
In this technique DNA is isolated from blood stains, semen stains or hair roots of disputed children or any suspected person and the same from parents, close associates or relatives of suspected criminals (based on the cases). Since hairs contain less amount of DNA, it can be produced in a large amount by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). RBCs do not contain DNA, therefore, WBCs are the source of DNA. Thus the DNA isolated is cut with restriction enzyme and subjected to Southern blotting. The DNA bands appearing on membrane are hybridized with 32P-DNA probe, washed in water to remove unhybridized DNA, and passed through X-ray. The hybridized complementary DNA sequences develop images (prints). Identical prints that contain specific DNA sequences appearing on two X-ray films are identified and thus identity is confirmed. Probability of two persons having similar sets of base pairs in the same sequence of VNTR of DNA is one in 30-300 million individuals.

 

In India, facilities of DNA fingerprinting at international level are available at the Center for DNA Fingerprinting and Diagnostics (CDFD) (Hyderabad), the then Center for Cellular and Molecular Biology (CCMB) (Hyderabad). At this center the Jeffreys technique is not followed. Dr. Lalji Singh has developed an indigenous technique where 'BKM'-DNA probe is used for hybridization of DNA sequences. While he was working on sex determination in snakes in his Ph.D. programme (in BHU, Varanasi), he found a contrast result. Unlike human and other organisms, the female snake contains XY and the male YY sex chromosomes. A segment of DNA was isolated from sex determining Y chromosome of female banded krait (Bungarus fasciatus), an Indian poisonous snake. This unique segment was named as 'banded krait minor satellite' (BKM). It is similar to sex determining chromosome in humans. The probe which is used for this purpose is, therefore, called BKM-DNA probe.
 

Content

Cloned genes and production of chemicals

 

Human peptide hormone genes

 

 

Insulines

 

 

Somatotropin

 

 

Somatostatin

 

 

b-endorphin

 

Human interferon genes

 

Genes for vaccines

 

 

Vaccine for hepatitis-B virus

 

 

Vaccines for Rabies virus

 

 

Vaccines for poliovirus

 

 

Vaccine for foot and mouth disease virus

 

 

Vaccines for small pox virus

 

 

Malaria vaccines

 

 

DNA vaccines

 

Genes associated with genetic diseases

 

 

Phenylketonuria

 

 

Urokinase

 

 

Thalassaemia

 

 

Hemophilia

 

Enzyme engineering

 

Commercial chemicals

Prevention, diagnosis and cure of diseases

 

Prevention of diseases

 

Diagnosis of diseases

 

 

Parasitic diseases

 

 

Monoclonal antibodies

 

 

Antenatal diagnosis

 

Gene therapy

 

 

Types of gene therapy

 

 

Methods of gene therapy

 

 

Success of gene therapy

 

 

Potential of gene delivering system

 

 

Future needs of gene therapy in India

DNA profiling (fingerprinting)

 

Methods of DNA profiling

 

Application of DNA profiling

 

 

Genetic databank

 

 

Reuniting the lost children

 

 

Solving disputed problems of parentage, identity of criminals, rapists, etc

 

 

Immigrant dispute

 

Hurdles of DNA profiling

Animal and plant improvement

 

Transgenic Farm Animals

 

Crop Improvements

 

 

Transgenic plants

 

 

Nif gene transfer

 

 

Phaseolin gene transfer

 

 

Conversion of C3 plants to C4 plants

 

 

Herbicide resistant plants

 

 

Insect pest resistant plants

 

 

Plant improvement through genetic transformation

 

Crop Protection

 

 

Use of antagonists

 

 

Use of insecticides

Abatement of pollution

 
     
 
 
     



     
 
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