<Genes Associated with Genetic Diseases - Genetic Engineering
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Genetic Engineering for Human Welfare


Genes Associated with Genetic Diseases
In December 1993, a team of International Scientists at French Academy of Sciences, Paris, developed the world's first map of human genome. For over a decade, genetic scientists have been attempting to map the genes. So far, the physical map existed only for 2% of human genome, and the present map covers about 90% of genome. To produce the map they cut human DNA into pieces and grew each piece in a yeast cell for clones. The clones were then cut into fragments and fingerprinted to detect overlapping sections. These sections were used as guides to put the pieces back together to get the map. This will help the scientists to discover genetic diseases. In human beings there are many cases where certain genes responsible for encoding enzymes are missing which result in genetic diseases. Some of them are briefly described here.

Phenylketonuria genes
In diseased persons when phenylalanine fails to get converted into tyrosin, disturbances in metabolism result in mental retardness. It is possible to cure this disease by using recombinant DNA techniques in early period of pregnancy.

Urokinase genes
Urokinase is involved in dissolution of blood clots. Urokinase has been synthesized in huge quantity by using genetically engineered bacteria with urokinase genes.

Thalassaemia genes
It is a condition in which synthesis of a and b-globin chains is reduced and the excess chains precipitate and cause haemolytic anaemia and spleen enlargement. Human globin genes have been identified and sequenced. It has been found that a -and b-globin genes are closely linked. Human globin genes (cDNA) has also been developed and cloned. However, much work has to be done to cure this disease.

Haemophilia genes
Haemophilia is sex linked disease in human where blood clotting does not takes place normally due to deficiency of clotting factor VIII: C. By using gene cloning techniques the clotting factor VIII : C gene was cloned which expressed in mammalian cell lines and produced the protein VIII : C responsible for blood clotting.

Enzymes Engineering
See Enzyme Technology

Production of Commercial Chemicals
There are several chemicals which are produced by using the recombinant DNA technologies. A few of them are as below :

See Vitamins

See Organic acids

See Alcohols

See Antibiotics



Cloned genes and production of chemicals


Human peptide hormone genes














Human interferon genes


Genes for vaccines



Vaccine for hepatitis-B virus



Vaccines for Rabies virus



Vaccines for poliovirus



Vaccine for foot and mouth disease virus



Vaccines for small pox virus



Malaria vaccines



DNA vaccines


Genes associated with genetic diseases














Enzyme engineering


Commercial chemicals

Prevention, diagnosis and cure of diseases


Prevention of diseases


Diagnosis of diseases



Parasitic diseases



Monoclonal antibodies



Antenatal diagnosis


Gene therapy



Types of gene therapy



Methods of gene therapy



Success of gene therapy



Potential of gene delivering system



Future needs of gene therapy in India

DNA profiling (fingerprinting)


Methods of DNA profiling


Application of DNA profiling



Genetic databank



Reuniting the lost children



Solving disputed problems of parentage, identity of criminals, rapists, etc



Immigrant dispute


Hurdles of DNA profiling

Animal and plant improvement


Transgenic Farm Animals


Crop Improvements



Transgenic plants



Nif gene transfer



Phaseolin gene transfer



Conversion of C3 plants to C4 plants



Herbicide resistant plants



Insect pest resistant plants



Plant improvement through genetic transformation


Crop Protection



Use of antagonists



Use of insecticides

Abatement of pollution

Recombinant DNA technology has helped in increased production of antibiotics; for example, the rate of penicillin produced at present is about 1,50,000 units/ml against about 10 unit/ml in 1950s. However, protoplast fusion technology of microbes for antibiotic production holds promise for microbes increasing the rate of production. The hybrid cell manifests genetic features of both the species. The hybrid species can produce new antibiotic or increase the productivity of the strain. For example, hybrids obtained from the protoplast fusion of Streptomyces grieseus and S. taniimatiansis produced a new metabolite of entirely different properties.

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