<Genes Associated with Genetic Diseases - Genetic Engineering
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Genetic Engineering for Human Welfare

 
     
 

Genes Associated with Genetic Diseases
In December 1993, a team of International Scientists at French Academy of Sciences, Paris, developed the world's first map of human genome. For over a decade, genetic scientists have been attempting to map the genes. So far, the physical map existed only for 2% of human genome, and the present map covers about 90% of genome. To produce the map they cut human DNA into pieces and grew each piece in a yeast cell for clones. The clones were then cut into fragments and fingerprinted to detect overlapping sections. These sections were used as guides to put the pieces back together to get the map. This will help the scientists to discover genetic diseases. In human beings there are many cases where certain genes responsible for encoding enzymes are missing which result in genetic diseases. Some of them are briefly described here.

Phenylketonuria genes
In diseased persons when phenylalanine fails to get converted into tyrosin, disturbances in metabolism result in mental retardness. It is possible to cure this disease by using recombinant DNA techniques in early period of pregnancy.

Urokinase genes
Urokinase is involved in dissolution of blood clots. Urokinase has been synthesized in huge quantity by using genetically engineered bacteria with urokinase genes.

Thalassaemia genes
It is a condition in which synthesis of a and b-globin chains is reduced and the excess chains precipitate and cause haemolytic anaemia and spleen enlargement. Human globin genes have been identified and sequenced. It has been found that a -and b-globin genes are closely linked. Human globin genes (cDNA) has also been developed and cloned. However, much work has to be done to cure this disease.

Haemophilia genes
Haemophilia is sex linked disease in human where blood clotting does not takes place normally due to deficiency of clotting factor VIII: C. By using gene cloning techniques the clotting factor VIII : C gene was cloned which expressed in mammalian cell lines and produced the protein VIII : C responsible for blood clotting.

Enzymes Engineering
See Enzyme Technology

Production of Commercial Chemicals
There are several chemicals which are produced by using the recombinant DNA technologies. A few of them are as below :

See Vitamins

See Organic acids

See Alcohols

See Antibiotics

 

Content

Cloned genes and production of chemicals

 

Human peptide hormone genes

 

 

Insulines

 

 

Somatotropin

 

 

Somatostatin

 

 

b-endorphin

 

Human interferon genes

 

Genes for vaccines

 

 

Vaccine for hepatitis-B virus

 

 

Vaccines for Rabies virus

 

 

Vaccines for poliovirus

 

 

Vaccine for foot and mouth disease virus

 

 

Vaccines for small pox virus

 

 

Malaria vaccines

 

 

DNA vaccines

 

Genes associated with genetic diseases

 

 

Phenylketonuria

 

 

Urokinase

 

 

Thalassaemia

 

 

Hemophilia

 

Enzyme engineering

 

Commercial chemicals

Prevention, diagnosis and cure of diseases

 

Prevention of diseases

 

Diagnosis of diseases

 

 

Parasitic diseases

 

 

Monoclonal antibodies

 

 

Antenatal diagnosis

 

Gene therapy

 

 

Types of gene therapy

 

 

Methods of gene therapy

 

 

Success of gene therapy

 

 

Potential of gene delivering system

 

 

Future needs of gene therapy in India

DNA profiling (fingerprinting)

 

Methods of DNA profiling

 

Application of DNA profiling

 

 

Genetic databank

 

 

Reuniting the lost children

 

 

Solving disputed problems of parentage, identity of criminals, rapists, etc

 

 

Immigrant dispute

 

Hurdles of DNA profiling

Animal and plant improvement

 

Transgenic Farm Animals

 

Crop Improvements

 

 

Transgenic plants

 

 

Nif gene transfer

 

 

Phaseolin gene transfer

 

 

Conversion of C3 plants to C4 plants

 

 

Herbicide resistant plants

 

 

Insect pest resistant plants

 

 

Plant improvement through genetic transformation

 

Crop Protection

 

 

Use of antagonists

 

 

Use of insecticides

Abatement of pollution


Recombinant DNA technology has helped in increased production of antibiotics; for example, the rate of penicillin produced at present is about 1,50,000 units/ml against about 10 unit/ml in 1950s. However, protoplast fusion technology of microbes for antibiotic production holds promise for microbes increasing the rate of production. The hybrid cell manifests genetic features of both the species. The hybrid species can produce new antibiotic or increase the productivity of the strain. For example, hybrids obtained from the protoplast fusion of Streptomyces grieseus and S. taniimatiansis produced a new metabolite of entirely different properties.
 
     
 
 
     



     
 
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