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  Section: General Biotechnology / Genes & Genetic Engineering
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Genetic Engineering for Human Welfare


Hurdles to DNA Profiling Technology
When DNA profiling technology was applied in forensic science, it was challenged in 1987 for its reliability by the defense expert of a murderer in pretrial hearing. Thus, murder trial could not be concluded on DNA testing. The controversial arguments were on methods of collection, labeling and testing of samples.

Certainly, the interpretation of the bar code pattern of a DNA profile is not easy; it needs skill and expertise. For example, a band corresponding to DNA fragment containing 10 repeat sequences many be very close to a fragment with 11 such sequences. Therefore, these two could not be distinguished. Hence, computer scanning device is needed that measures accurate size of each DNA fragment which makes bar code pattern and compares DNA profiles.

Secondly, when blood samples of criminals are collected, it may be contaminated by microorganisms, the other environmental factors like heat as it may degrade DNA. If so, there may be misleading matches or mismatches. Therefore, at every step care should be taken in carrying out the analytical work. Since the test depends on comparison of the length of different cut fragments, the DNA samples to be compared should be treated exactly in the same way as same restriction enzyme, same gel, same detective probes, etc. Inspite of precautions, some times there occurs 'band shift' which shows still carelessness. Because small differences will give .wrong result and misinterpretation. Therefore, analysis should be repeated to ensure its validity and reliability. Therefore, for forensic science accurate guidelines should be formulated and strictly followed. In this regard, the National Research Council (USA) recommended a series of safeguards for conducting DNA typing tests. In addition, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (USA) along with the National Institute of Standard & Technology have developed standards for DNA profiling (Chawla, 1998).



Cloned genes and production of chemicals


Human peptide hormone genes














Human interferon genes


Genes for vaccines



Vaccine for hepatitis-B virus



Vaccines for Rabies virus



Vaccines for poliovirus



Vaccine for foot and mouth disease virus



Vaccines for small pox virus



Malaria vaccines



DNA vaccines


Genes associated with genetic diseases














Enzyme engineering


Commercial chemicals

Prevention, diagnosis and cure of diseases


Prevention of diseases


Diagnosis of diseases



Parasitic diseases



Monoclonal antibodies



Antenatal diagnosis


Gene therapy



Types of gene therapy



Methods of gene therapy



Success of gene therapy



Potential of gene delivering system



Future needs of gene therapy in India

DNA profiling (fingerprinting)


Methods of DNA profiling


Application of DNA profiling



Genetic databank



Reuniting the lost children



Solving disputed problems of parentage, identity of criminals, rapists, etc



Immigrant dispute


Hurdles of DNA profiling

Animal and plant improvement


Transgenic Farm Animals


Crop Improvements



Transgenic plants



Nif gene transfer



Phaseolin gene transfer



Conversion of C3 plants to C4 plants



Herbicide resistant plants



Insect pest resistant plants



Plant improvement through genetic transformation


Crop Protection



Use of antagonists



Use of insecticides

Abatement of pollution


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