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  Section: General Biotechnology / Genes & Genetic Engineering
 
 
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Genetic Engineering for Human Welfare

 
     
 

Future needs of gene therapy in India
Besides genetic diseases, gene therapy has tremendous scope for treatment of several disorders such as cancer, cardiovascular and neurological disorders. To initiate gene therapy the functional studies should be focussed on (i) design of newer vectors for gene delivery, newer approaches to systemic delivery, (ii) targeting to specific tissues and cells, (iii) stability and duration of expression of gene introduced, (iv) the statutes of the introduced genes in vivo, (v) design of appropriate animal models, (vi) assessment of risk-benefit states, and (vii) an understanding of molecular basis of cellular humoral immune response in case of DNA vaccines (Rangarajan and Padmanaban, 1996).
 

The need of hours is to start more studies in different systems on various aspects realizing the significance of approaches of gene therapy. Department of Biotechnology, Govt of India has constituted a group of experts to activate this area of research. At present there are only 3-4 laboratories in this country that have started work on this area. At South Campus of Delhi University, in 1994 Bagai and Sarkar have demonstrated the delivery of macromolecules such as toxins, drugs and nucleic acids into viable cultured cells through the use of reconstituted Sendai virus envelop (RSVE). This approach needs to be extrapolated under in vivo conditions. At the Cancer Research Institute (Mumbai) treatment of oral cancer through gene targeting to oral mucosal cells has been demonstrated. In 1995, at the Indian Institute of Science (Bangalore), Prabhu and co-workers have demonstrated the reporter mediated targeting and expression of growth hormone gene in rat liver by using a regulatable promoter (cytochrome P-450 promoter induced by phenobarbitone). In 1996, Rangarajan and co-workers have demonstrated a newer approach to delivering DNA to hepatocytes by perfusion of liver with DNA-lipofectin complex.
 

Content

Cloned genes and production of chemicals

 

Human peptide hormone genes

 

 

Insulines

 

 

Somatotropin

 

 

Somatostatin

 

 

b-endorphin

 

Human interferon genes

 

Genes for vaccines

 

 

Vaccine for hepatitis-B virus

 

 

Vaccines for Rabies virus

 

 

Vaccines for poliovirus

 

 

Vaccine for foot and mouth disease virus

 

 

Vaccines for small pox virus

 

 

Malaria vaccines

 

 

DNA vaccines

 

Genes associated with genetic diseases

 

 

Phenylketonuria

 

 

Urokinase

 

 

Thalassaemia

 

 

Hemophilia

 

Enzyme engineering

 

Commercial chemicals

Prevention, diagnosis and cure of diseases

 

Prevention of diseases

 

Diagnosis of diseases

 

 

Parasitic diseases

 

 

Monoclonal antibodies

 

 

Antenatal diagnosis

 

Gene therapy

 

 

Types of gene therapy

 

 

Methods of gene therapy

 

 

Success of gene therapy

 

 

Potential of gene delivering system

 

 

Future needs of gene therapy in India

DNA profiling (fingerprinting)

 

Methods of DNA profiling

 

Application of DNA profiling

 

 

Genetic databank

 

 

Reuniting the lost children

 

 

Solving disputed problems of parentage, identity of criminals, rapists, etc

 

 

Immigrant dispute

 

Hurdles of DNA profiling

Animal and plant improvement

 

Transgenic Farm Animals

 

Crop Improvements

 

 

Transgenic plants

 

 

Nif gene transfer

 

 

Phaseolin gene transfer

 

 

Conversion of C3 plants to C4 plants

 

 

Herbicide resistant plants

 

 

Insect pest resistant plants

 

 

Plant improvement through genetic transformation

 

Crop Protection

 

 

Use of antagonists

 

 

Use of insecticides

Abatement of pollution

 
     
 
 
     



     
 
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