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  Section: Biotechnology Methods » Microbiology
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Performance Objectives

  The Microscopy
  The Bright Field Microscope
  Introduction to the Microscope and Comparison of Sizes and Shapes of Microorganisms
  Cell Size Measurements: Ocular and Stage Micrometers
  Measuring Depth
  Measuring Area
  Cell Count by Hemocytometer or Measuring Volume
  Measurement of Cell Organelles
  Use of Darkfield Illumination
  The Phase Contrast Microscope
  The Inverted Phase Microscope
  Aseptic Technique and Transfer of Microorganisms
  Control of Microorganisms by using Physical Agents
  Control of Microorganisms by using Disinfectants and Antiseptics
  Control of Microorganisms by using Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
  Isolation of Pure Cultures from a Mixed Population
  Bacterial Staining
  Direct Stain and Indirect Stain
  Gram Stain and Capsule Stain
  Endospore Staining and Bacterial Motility
  Enumeration of Microorganisms
  Biochemical Test for Identification of Bacteria
  Triple Sugar Iron Test
  Starch Hydrolysis Test (II Method)
  Gelatin Hydrolysis Test
  Catalase Test
  Oxidase Test
  IMVIC Test
  Extraction of Bacterial DNA
  Medically Significant Gram–Positive Cocci (GPC)
  Protozoans, Fungi, and Animal Parasites
  The Fungi, Part 1–The Yeasts
  Performance Objectives
  The Fungi, Part 2—The Molds
  Viruses: The Bacteriophages
  Serology, Part 1–Direct Serologic Testing
  Serology, Part 2–Indirect Serologic Testing

  1. Define mycology and mycosis.
  2. Describe 3 ways fungi may be beneficial to humans and 3 ways they may be harmful.

  1. Describe the typical appearance of a yeast and its usual mode of reproduction.
  2. Describe yeasts in terms of their oxygen requirements.
  3. Explain 2 ways the yeast Saccharomyces is beneficial to humans.
  4. Name 2 yeasts that commonly infect humans.
  5. Name 4 common forms of candidiasis.
  6. Describe 2 conditions that may enable Candida to cause severe opportunistic systemic infections.
  7. Describe pseudohyphae, blastospores, and chlamydospores.
  8. Explain the usefulness of saboraud dextrose agar, mycosel agar, and rice extract agar.
  9. Describe how Cryptococcus neoformans is transmitted to humans, where in the body it normally infects, and possible complications.
  10. Name the primary method of identifying Cryptococcus neoformans.
  11. Name which disease is caused by Pneumocystis carinii and indicate several predisposing conditions a person normally has before they contract the disease.
  1. Describe the appearance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans on saboraud dextrose agar and mycosel agar.
  2. When given a plate of Mycosel agar showing yeast-like growth and a plate of rice extract agar showing pseudohyphae, blastospores, and chlamydospores, identify the organism as Candida albicans.
  3. Recognize the following observed microscopically:
    1. Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans as yeasts in a direct stain preparation.
    2. A positive specimen for thrush by the presence of budding Candida albicans.
    3. Cryptococcus neoformans in an India ink preparation.
    4. A cyst of Pneumocystis carinii in lung tissue.


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