Nucleic Acids

Content of Nucleic Acid Synthesis
» Nucleic Acids
» Structure and Function of Nucleic Acids
    » Basic Chemical Structure
    » Base Pairing in Nucleic Acids: Double Helical Structure of Dna
    » Size, Structure, Organization, and Complexity of Genomes
    » Information Storage, Processing, and Transfer
    » Chromosomal Dna Compaction and Its Implications in Replication and Transcription
    » DNA Sequence and Chromosome Organization
    » Repetitive Sequences: Selfish DNA
    » Chromatin Remodeling and Histone Acetylation
» Nucleic Acid Syntheses
    » Similarity of DNA and RNA Synthesis
    » DNA Replication Vs Transcription: Enzymatic Processes
    » Multiplicity of DNA and RNA Polymerases
» DNA Replication and Its Regulation
    » DNA Replication
    » Regulation of DNA Replication
    » Regulation of Bacterial DNA Replication at the Level of Initiation
    » DNA Chain Elongation and Termination in Prokaryotes
    » General Features of Eukaryotic DNA Replication
    » Licensing of Eukaryotic Genome Replication
    » Fidelity of DNA Replication
    » Replication of Telomeres—The End Game
    » Telomere Shortening: Linkage Between Telomere Length and Limited Life Span
» Maintenance of Genome Integrity
» DNA Manipulations and their Applications
» Transcriptional Processes
    » Recognition of Prokaryotic Promoters and Role of S-Factors
    » Regulation of Transcription in Bacteria
    » Eukaryotic Transcription
    » RNA Splicing in Metazoans
    » Regulation of Transcription in Eukaryotes
    » Fidelity of Transcription (RNA Editing)
» Chemical Synthesis of Nucleic Acids (Oligonucleotides)
» Bibliography of Nucleic Acid Synthesis
Nucleic Acid are involved in the most fundamental processes of life. Their maintenance and production are essential in all living organisms. The hallmark of the biosphere is diversity of biological processes, even among members of the same genera, e.g., bacteria. Each organism may have some unique features in regard to nucleic acid composition, structure, and metabolism. Thus, studies on nucleic acid synthesis constitute a huge topic of research on which thousands of research articles are published each year. Therefore, it is impossible to cover all aspects of nucleic acid synthesis in this short article. Our goal is to present a broad overview of the key and general features of structure, synthesis, and processing of the various types of nucleic acids.We have limited our discussion mostly to bacteria, specifically Escherichia coli, and to mammals, mostly humans and mice. Most of our current knowledge has been derived from the studies of those organisms.

We have also provided appropriate references, which are mostly recent reviews. The readers should be able to peruse these for in-depth knowledge of the topics which are covered only superficially here. Finally, we have included a glossary at the beginning of this article which lists common acronyms and short descriptions of key processes and phenomena.