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  Section: General Biotechnology / Genes & Genetic Engineering
 
 
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Genetic Engineering for Human Welfare

 
     
 

Abatement of Pollution through Genetically Engineered Microorganisms

For detoxification and degradation of toxic chemicals, enzymes are encoded by specific genes present on plasmids. Chakraborty and coworkers (1979) succeeded in isolating the microbial culture which could utilize a number of organic chemicals, toxic in nature, such as salicylate, 2,4-D, 3 chlorobenzenes, ethylene, biphenyls, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, 2, 4, 5-trichlorophenoxy-acetic acid, etc. (Chatterjee et al, 1981; Kellogg et al., 1981).


  Creation of a superbug (Diagrammatic).  
 

Fig. 5.12. Creation of a superbug (Diagrammatic).

 

Genes responsible for degradation of environmental pollutants, for example, toluene, chlorobenzene acids, and other halogenated pesticides and toxic wastes have been identified. For every compound, one separate plasmid is required. It is not like that one plasmid can degrade all the toxic compounds of different groups. The plasmids are grouped into four categories:

(i)

OCT plasmid which degrades, octane, hexane and decane,

(ii)

XYL plasmid which degrades xylene and toluenes,

(iii)

CAM plasmid that decompose camphor, and

(iv)

NAH plasmid which degrades naphthalene.

Dr Anand Mohan Chakrabarty (an Indian borne American scientist) produced a new product of genetic engineering called as superbug (oil eating bug) by introducing plasmids from different strains into a single cell of P. putida. This superbug is such that can degrade all the four types of substrates for which four separate plasmids were required (Fig 5.12).


The plasmids of P. putida degrading various chemical compounds are TOL (for toluene and xylene), RA500 (for 3,5-xylene) pAC 25 (for 3-cne chlorobenxoate), pKF439 (for salicylatetoluene). Plasmid WWO of P. putida is one member of a set of plasmids now termed as TOL plasmid. WWO is propagated in E. coli (Chatterjee et al, 1981; Kellogg et al 1981).

For a detail discussion see Environmental Biotechnology .


 

Content

Cloned genes and production of chemicals

 

Human peptide hormone genes

 

 

Insulines

 

 

Somatotropin

 

 

Somatostatin

 

 

b-endorphin

 

Human interferon genes

 

Genes for vaccines

 

 

Vaccine for hepatitis-B virus

 

 

Vaccines for Rabies virus

 

 

Vaccines for poliovirus

 

 

Vaccine for foot and mouth disease virus

 

 

Vaccines for small pox virus

 

 

Malaria vaccines

 

 

DNA vaccines

 

Genes associated with genetic diseases

 

 

Phenylketonuria

 

 

Urokinase

 

 

Thalassaemia

 

 

Hemophilia

 

Enzyme engineering

 

Commercial chemicals

Prevention, diagnosis and cure of diseases

 

Prevention of diseases

 

Diagnosis of diseases

 

 

Parasitic diseases

 

 

Monoclonal antibodies

 

 

Antenatal diagnosis

 

Gene therapy

 

 

Types of gene therapy

 

 

Methods of gene therapy

 

 

Success of gene therapy

 

 

Potential of gene delivering system

 

 

Future needs of gene therapy in India

DNA profiling (fingerprinting)

 

Methods of DNA profiling

 

Application of DNA profiling

 

 

Genetic databank

 

 

Reuniting the lost children

 

 

Solving disputed problems of parentage, identity of criminals, rapists, etc

 

 

Immigrant dispute

 

Hurdles of DNA profiling

Animal and plant improvement

 

Transgenic Farm Animals

 

Crop Improvements

 

 

Transgenic plants

 

 

Nif gene transfer

 

 

Phaseolin gene transfer

 

 

Conversion of C3 plants to C4 plants

 

 

Herbicide resistant plants

 

 

Insect pest resistant plants

 

 

Plant improvement through genetic transformation

 

Crop Protection

 

 

Use of antagonists

 

 

Use of insecticides

Abatement of pollution

 

 
     
 
 
     



     
 
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