Regulation at Transcription Level

Content
Regulation of Gene Expression 3. A Variety of Mechanisms in Eukaryotes
Regulation at Transcription Level
Activation of transcription
Britten-Davidson model for unit of transcription
Gene battery
Chromosomal proteins and gene expression
Repression of transcription 
Specific DNA sequences controlling transcription
Transgenic plants to study regulatory sequences
Modification of DNA sequences and their transcripts in gene expression
Alternative splicing of transcripts
Regulation at translation level
Activation and repression of translation
Masked mRNA in eggs of sea urchin and Xenopus
Regulation by gene re-arrangement
Expression of immunoglobulin genes
Yeast mating type switching
Trypanosome surface antigen (VSG) switching
Synthesis of mRNA in pieces in VSG genes in trypanosome
Regulation by reversible phosphorylation
Signal transduction and second messengers
Proteins and peptide hormones and gene expression
Steroid hormones and gene expression
Interferon stimulated gene expression (without a second messenger)
Cell surface receptors in cholesterol metabolism and drug production
Ubiquitin protein and regulation of heat shock genes
Regulation at Transcription Level
As in prokaryotes, regulation of gene expression is exercised in majority of cases at the level of transcription, although examples of post-transcriptional control are also known. In view of this, major part of this section is devoted to regulation at transcriptional level. This regulation may involve both activation and repression, because genes may have to be switched on in some cases and switched off in other cases. DNA sequences involved in regulation, were also identified through the use of DNA footprinting as well as through the use of gene constructs for production of transgenic plants. All these aspects will be briefly described in this section.