Genetics can be broadly classified in the following three areas for the convenience of a discussion on its scope and significance : (i) transmission genetics involving study of transmission of genetic material from one generation to the other; (ii) molecular and biochemical genetics, involving study of the structure and function of genes and (iii) population and biometrical genetics, involving study of the behavior and effects of genes in population, often using mathematical models. The above classification is arbitrary, and the three areas are inter-related and even enter other areas of biology to answer some difficult questions. Significance of genetics also stems from the fact that the genetic material containing information for hereditary traits consists of nucleic acids only, across the entire spectrum of life on the earth. More important of tlie two types of nucleic acids, deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA) and ribose nucleic acid (RNA), is the former i.e. DNA, which has two unique properties : (i) it can replicate and produce its exact copies and (ii) it carries the genetic information, necessary to give form to an organism; this information is written into the sequence of four monomers called nucleotides, which make the polymer molecule, the DNA.
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