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  Section: General Zoology » Activity of Life
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Growth Hormone and Metabolism

Chemical Coordination
Mechanisms of Hormone Action 
  Membrane-Bound Receptors and the Second Messenger Concept
  Nuclear Receptors
Invertebrate Hormones 
Vertebrate Endocrine Glands and Hormones 
  Hormones of the Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland
    - Hypothalamus and Neurosecretion
    - Anterior Pituitary
    - Posterior Pituitary
  Pineal Gland
  Brain Neuropeptides
  Prostaglandins and Cytokines
  Hormones of Metabolism
    - Thyroid Hormones
    - Hormonal Regulation of Calcium Metabolism
    - Hormones of the Adrenal Cortex
    - Hormones of the Adrenal Medulla
    - Insulin and Glucagon from Islet Cells of the Pancreas
    - Growth Hormone and Metabolism
    - The Newest Hormone - Leptin

Growth Hormone and Metabolism
Growth hormone (GH) is a particularly important metabolic hormone in young animals during growth and development. It acts directly on long bones to promote cartilaginous growth and bone formation by cell division and protein synthesis, thus producing an increase in length and density of bone. GH increases the release of fat from adipose tissue stores and glycogen from liver stores for energy metabolism. Thus, GH is considered a diabetogenic hormone, since oversecretion leads to an increase in blood glucose and can result in insulin insensitivity or diabetes. If produced in excess, GH causes giantism. A deficiency of this hormone in a human child leads to dwarfism. GH also acts indirectly on growth via stimulation of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) or somatomedin release from the liver. This polypeptide hormone promotes mobilization of glycogen and fat stores necessary for growth processes.


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