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  Section: Practical Skills in Chemistry » Instrumental techniques
 
 
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Atomic Emission Spectroscopy

 
     
 
Content
Instrumental techniques
  Basic spectroscopy
    Introduction to spectroscopy
    UV Ivisible spectrophotometry
    Fluorescence
    Fluorescence spectrophotometry
    Phosphorescence and luminescence
    Atomic spectroscopy
  Atomic spectroscopy
    Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy
    Atomic Emission Spectroscopy
    Inductively coupled plasma
    Decomposition techniques for solid inorganic samples
  Infrared spectroscopy
  Nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry
    1H-NMR spectra
    13C-NMR spectra
  Mass spectrometry
    Interfacing mass spectrometry
  Chromatography ~ introduction
    The chromatogram
    Resolution
    Detectors
  Gas and liquid chromatography
    Gas chromatography
    Liquid chromatography
    High-performance liquid chromatography
    Interpreting chromatograms
    Optimizing chromatographic separations
    Quantitative analysis
  Electrophoresis
    The supporting medium
    Capillary electrophoresis
    Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE)
    Micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC)
  Electroanalytical techniques
    Potentiometry and ion-selective electrodes
    Voltammetric methods
    Oxygen electrodes
    Coulometric methods
    Cyclic voltammetry
  Radioactive isotopes and their uses
    Radioactive decay
    Measuring radioactivity
    Chemical applications for radioactive isotopes
    Working practices when using radioactive isotopes
  Thermal analysis
    Thermogravimetry
    Applications

The main components of an atomic emISSIOn spectrometer are an atomization and ionization cell, a method of sample introduction, the spectrometer and detector. In contrast to AAS, no radiation source is required.

Flame photometry is almost exclusively used for the determination of alkali metals because of their low excitation potential (e.g. sodium 5.14eV and potassium 4.34eV). This simplifies the instrumentation required and allows a cooler flame (air-propane, air-butane or air-natural gas) to be used in conjunction with a simpler spectrometer (interference filter). The use of an interference filter allows a large excess of light to be viewed by the detector. Thus, the expensive photomultiplier tube is not required and a cheaper detector can be used, e.g. a photodiode or photoemissive detector. The sample is introduced using a pneumatic nebulizer as described for FAAS. Flame photometry is therefore a simple, robust and inexpensive technique for the determination of potassium (766.5 nm) or sodium (589.0 nm) in clinical or environmental samples. The technique suffers from the same type of interferences as in FAAS. The operation of a flame photometer is described in Box 26.2.

 
     
 
 
     



     
 
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