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  Section: Practical Skills in Chemistry » Instrumental techniques
 
 
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Content
Instrumental techniques
  Basic spectroscopy
    Introduction to spectroscopy
    UV Ivisible spectrophotometry
    Fluorescence
    Fluorescence spectrophotometry
    Phosphorescence and luminescence
    Atomic spectroscopy
  Atomic spectroscopy
    Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy
    Atomic Emission Spectroscopy
    Inductively coupled plasma
    Decomposition techniques for solid inorganic samples
  Infrared spectroscopy
  Nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry
    1H-NMR spectra
    13C-NMR spectra
  Mass spectrometry
    Interfacing mass spectrometry
  Chromatography ~ introduction
    The chromatogram
    Resolution
    Detectors
  Gas and liquid chromatography
    Gas chromatography
    Liquid chromatography
    High-performance liquid chromatography
    Interpreting chromatograms
    Optimizing chromatographic separations
    Quantitative analysis
  Electrophoresis
    The supporting medium
    Capillary electrophoresis
    Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE)
    Micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC)
  Electroanalytical techniques
    Potentiometry and ion-selective electrodes
    Voltammetric methods
    Oxygen electrodes
    Coulometric methods
    Cyclic voltammetry
  Radioactive isotopes and their uses
    Radioactive decay
    Measuring radioactivity
    Chemical applications for radioactive isotopes
    Working practices when using radioactive isotopes
  Thermal analysis
    Thermogravimetry
    Applications

As well as inorganic complexes, thermal analysis is applicable to a wide range of substances, e.g. polymers, drugs, soils and coals. It can also be applied to mixtures of, for example, polymer blends.

Degradation of polymers : The effect of heat on polymers varies according to the type of polymer under investigation. In an inert atmosphere, polymeric materials react in two distinct ways: they either depolymerize or carbonize. For example, poly(methyl methacrylate) may degrade back to the monomer.

Soil: The composition of soil is complex and varies with location and geology. Three general stages of soil decomposition on heating can be identified:
  1. Loss of moisture and simple organic compounds (between room temperature and 150°C).
  2. Ignition of soil organic matter (between 250 and 550°C).
  3. Presence of minerals e.g. carbonates. The process can be complicated by the presence of hydrated minerals e.g. aluminium and iron oxides, and micas (above 550°C).
Drugs: The presence of water in both 'free' and 'bound' states in pharmaceuticals can be identified.


 
     
 
 
     



     
 
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