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  Section: General Biotechnology / Genes & Genetic Engineering
 
 
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Techniques of Genetic Engineering

 
     
 

Animal Cells
Culture of animal cells, on a large scale is more difficult and expensive than plant cells, the bacteria, yeast, etc. This is why the commercialization of natural products of animal origin is limited. However, most of the animal products have been produced by using bacteria as biological tool.

In India, Dr. K. Chandrashekharan, Center for Cellular and Molecular Biology (CCMB), Hyderabad emphasized the use of recombinant DNA technology for the introduction of foreign DNA into mammalian cells. This would help in curing certain genetic defects. Some of the examples of gene cloning in animals are described in Genetic Engineering for Human Welfare.

 

Content

Gene cloning in prokaryotes

 

Isolation of DNA to be cloned

 

Insertion of DNA fragment into vector 

 

 

Use of restriction Linkers

 

 

Use of homopolymer tails

 

Transfer of recombinant DNA into bacterial cells

 

Selection of clones

 

 

Colony hybridization techniques

 

 

In vitro translation technique

 

 

Immunological tests

 

 

Blotting Techniques

 

Recovery of cells

 

Expression of cloned DNA

 

 

Shine-Dalgano sequence

 

 

Expression vectors

Gene cloning in eukaryotes

 

Plant cells

 

 

Yeasts

 

 

Filamentous fungi

 

 

Agrobacterium plasmids

 

 

Plant cell transformation

 

 

Plant cell transformation by ultrasonication

 

 

Liposome mediated gene transfer

 

Animal cell  

 

 

Animal viruses

 

 

Electroporation

 

 

Particle bombardment

 

 

Microinjection

 

 

Direct transformation

Site directed mutagenesis

 

Methods of mutagenesis

 
     
 
 
     



     
 
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