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  Section: General Biotechnology / Genes & Genetic Engineering
 
 
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Genetic Engineering for Human Welfare

 
     
 

Vaccines for Foot and Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV)
Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a serious disease caused by Aphthovirus. The primary control measure of the disease has been the slaughter of FMDV - infected animals. Chemotherapeutic way of FMD control is vaccination. Vaccines are produced by inactivation of virus grown in bovine tongue epithelium. A detailed study of FMDV reveals that it contains a single stranded RNA covered in a capsid of four polypeptides, for example, VP1, VP2, VP3 and VP4 where only VP1 has a little immunogenic activity. However, the nucleotide sequence encoding for VP1 was identified on the single stranded RNA genome and cloned on double stranded pBR322 in E. coli. About 1,000 molecules of VP1 per bacterial cell were synthesized (Kupper et al, 1981).

Vaccines produced from genetically engineered E. coli cells cannot compete with those extracted from virus particle. Therefore, much more work is to be done to make the vaccines available for FMDV on a large scale at low price. An outline for production of FMD vaccine is given in Fig. 5.6.

Recombinant DNA technology for making foot and mouth disease vaccine

Fig. 5.6. Recombinant DNA technology for making foot and mouth disease vaccine

Synthetic peptides have also been produced and used for immunization against bacterial (Diphtheria, Streptococcus pyogenes) and viral (Hepatitis virus, FMDV) diseases. For the production of synthetic polypeptide to be used as vaccines, it is necessary to have the knowledge of structure and function of proteins and the regions involved in immunogenic response. For example, synthetic polypeptides having immunogenic affects against HBV contain disulphide bond in the region between amino acids 117 and 137 corresponding to the viral surface antigen. After injection into mice the polypeptides elicited antibodies against HBsAg and protected half of mice.

Similarly, a synthetic polypeptide has been identified that corresponds several regions of FMDV protein VP1. The region between amino acids 141 and 160 elicited and production of antibodies against FMDV in guinea pigs, rabbits and swine. Likewise, another polypeptide was synthesized and the region between amino acids 200 to 213 also VPI also elicited antibodies against FMDV. There are other examples also for the synthesis of vaccines against viral diseases; such vaccines too have a great promise for the immunization purposes.

 

Content

Cloned genes and production of chemicals

 

Human peptide hormone genes

 

 

Insulines

 

 

Somatotropin

 

 

Somatostatin

 

 

b-endorphin

 

Human interferon genes

 

Genes for vaccines

 

 

Vaccine for hepatitis-B virus

 

 

Vaccines for Rabies virus

 

 

Vaccines for poliovirus

 

 

Vaccine for foot and mouth disease virus

 

 

Vaccines for small pox virus

 

 

Malaria vaccines

 

 

DNA vaccines

 

Genes associated with genetic diseases

 

 

Phenylketonuria

 

 

Urokinase

 

 

Thalassaemia

 

 

Hemophilia

 

Enzyme engineering

 

Commercial chemicals

Prevention, diagnosis and cure of diseases

 

Prevention of diseases

 

Diagnosis of diseases

 

 

Parasitic diseases

 

 

Monoclonal antibodies

 

 

Antenatal diagnosis

 

Gene therapy

 

 

Types of gene therapy

 

 

Methods of gene therapy

 

 

Success of gene therapy

 

 

Potential of gene delivering system

 

 

Future needs of gene therapy in India

DNA profiling (fingerprinting)

 

Methods of DNA profiling

 

Application of DNA profiling

 

 

Genetic databank

 

 

Reuniting the lost children

 

 

Solving disputed problems of parentage, identity of criminals, rapists, etc

 

 

Immigrant dispute

 

Hurdles of DNA profiling

Animal and plant improvement

 

Transgenic Farm Animals

 

Crop Improvements

 

 

Transgenic plants

 

 

Nif gene transfer

 

 

Phaseolin gene transfer

 

 

Conversion of C3 plants to C4 plants

 

 

Herbicide resistant plants

 

 

Insect pest resistant plants

 

 

Plant improvement through genetic transformation

 

Crop Protection

 

 

Use of antagonists

 

 

Use of insecticides

Abatement of pollution

 
     
 
 
     



     
 
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