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  Section: General Biotechnology / Genes & Genetic Engineering
 
 
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Genetic Engineering for Human Welfare

 
     
 

DNA vaccines
For the first time Wolf et al (1990) injected naked DNA into the muscles of mice which led to expression of encoded marker protein. Thereafter, there has been a surge to use this approach to generate DNA vaccines against a variety of infectious diseases. Thus DNA vaccines are giving hope of a third vaccine evolution.

The first published report from India indicates modest success in the development of DNA vaccines against rabies and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) in experimental animals. The efficacy of DNA vaccine (G protein) against rabies is correlated to levels of neutralizing antibodies, whereas in the case of JEV envelop protein, cell mediated irnmunity appears to be the major mechanism of protection. There is great hope that DNA vaccines can protect against serious infectious diseases. Most likely it is to become a tool to benefit mankind in 21st century as such or in combination with recombinant/cell culture vaccines or as an adjunct to chemotherapy (Padmanaban, 1999).

In case of malaria, DNA vaccines have distinct advantage, where plasmid DNA encoding different antigens and prepared by the same genetic procedure can be mixed and administered A mixture of 4 plasmid DNA (pfCSP, pfSSP2, pfEXP-1 and pfLSA-1) has been injected into Rhesus monkeys and found to elicit multiple antigen specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (Padmanaban, 1999).

Lowrie et at. (1999) have reported that a DNA vaccine coding for a mycobacterial heat sock protein of Mr65000 (Hsp 65) when administered in 4 doses to mice, 8 weeks after intravenous injection of virulent M. tuberculosis H37RV, leads to a dramatic decrease in number of live bacteria in spleen and lungs 2 months and 5 months after the first dose of DNA. Certain other mycobacterial antigens and BCG did not have this effect.
 

Content

Cloned genes and production of chemicals

 

Human peptide hormone genes

 

 

Insulines

 

 

Somatotropin

 

 

Somatostatin

 

 

b-endorphin

 

Human interferon genes

 

Genes for vaccines

 

 

Vaccine for hepatitis-B virus

 

 

Vaccines for Rabies virus

 

 

Vaccines for poliovirus

 

 

Vaccine for foot and mouth disease virus

 

 

Vaccines for small pox virus

 

 

Malaria vaccines

 

 

DNA vaccines

 

Genes associated with genetic diseases

 

 

Phenylketonuria

 

 

Urokinase

 

 

Thalassaemia

 

 

Hemophilia

 

Enzyme engineering

 

Commercial chemicals

Prevention, diagnosis and cure of diseases

 

Prevention of diseases

 

Diagnosis of diseases

 

 

Parasitic diseases

 

 

Monoclonal antibodies

 

 

Antenatal diagnosis

 

Gene therapy

 

 

Types of gene therapy

 

 

Methods of gene therapy

 

 

Success of gene therapy

 

 

Potential of gene delivering system

 

 

Future needs of gene therapy in India

DNA profiling (fingerprinting)

 

Methods of DNA profiling

 

Application of DNA profiling

 

 

Genetic databank

 

 

Reuniting the lost children

 

 

Solving disputed problems of parentage, identity of criminals, rapists, etc

 

 

Immigrant dispute

 

Hurdles of DNA profiling

Animal and plant improvement

 

Transgenic Farm Animals

 

Crop Improvements

 

 

Transgenic plants

 

 

Nif gene transfer

 

 

Phaseolin gene transfer

 

 

Conversion of C3 plants to C4 plants

 

 

Herbicide resistant plants

 

 

Insect pest resistant plants

 

 

Plant improvement through genetic transformation

 

Crop Protection

 

 

Use of antagonists

 

 

Use of insecticides

Abatement of pollution

 
     
 
 
     



     
 
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