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  Section: General Biotechnology / Genes & Genetic Engineering
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Genetic Engineering for Human Welfare


DNA vaccines
For the first time Wolf et al (1990) injected naked DNA into the muscles of mice which led to expression of encoded marker protein. Thereafter, there has been a surge to use this approach to generate DNA vaccines against a variety of infectious diseases. Thus DNA vaccines are giving hope of a third vaccine evolution.

The first published report from India indicates modest success in the development of DNA vaccines against rabies and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) in experimental animals. The efficacy of DNA vaccine (G protein) against rabies is correlated to levels of neutralizing antibodies, whereas in the case of JEV envelop protein, cell mediated irnmunity appears to be the major mechanism of protection. There is great hope that DNA vaccines can protect against serious infectious diseases. Most likely it is to become a tool to benefit mankind in 21st century as such or in combination with recombinant/cell culture vaccines or as an adjunct to chemotherapy (Padmanaban, 1999).

In case of malaria, DNA vaccines have distinct advantage, where plasmid DNA encoding different antigens and prepared by the same genetic procedure can be mixed and administered A mixture of 4 plasmid DNA (pfCSP, pfSSP2, pfEXP-1 and pfLSA-1) has been injected into Rhesus monkeys and found to elicit multiple antigen specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (Padmanaban, 1999).

Lowrie et at. (1999) have reported that a DNA vaccine coding for a mycobacterial heat sock protein of Mr65000 (Hsp 65) when administered in 4 doses to mice, 8 weeks after intravenous injection of virulent M. tuberculosis H37RV, leads to a dramatic decrease in number of live bacteria in spleen and lungs 2 months and 5 months after the first dose of DNA. Certain other mycobacterial antigens and BCG did not have this effect.


Cloned genes and production of chemicals


Human peptide hormone genes














Human interferon genes


Genes for vaccines



Vaccine for hepatitis-B virus



Vaccines for Rabies virus



Vaccines for poliovirus



Vaccine for foot and mouth disease virus



Vaccines for small pox virus



Malaria vaccines



DNA vaccines


Genes associated with genetic diseases














Enzyme engineering


Commercial chemicals

Prevention, diagnosis and cure of diseases


Prevention of diseases


Diagnosis of diseases



Parasitic diseases



Monoclonal antibodies



Antenatal diagnosis


Gene therapy



Types of gene therapy



Methods of gene therapy



Success of gene therapy



Potential of gene delivering system



Future needs of gene therapy in India

DNA profiling (fingerprinting)


Methods of DNA profiling


Application of DNA profiling



Genetic databank



Reuniting the lost children



Solving disputed problems of parentage, identity of criminals, rapists, etc



Immigrant dispute


Hurdles of DNA profiling

Animal and plant improvement


Transgenic Farm Animals


Crop Improvements



Transgenic plants



Nif gene transfer



Phaseolin gene transfer



Conversion of C3 plants to C4 plants



Herbicide resistant plants



Insect pest resistant plants



Plant improvement through genetic transformation


Crop Protection



Use of antagonists



Use of insecticides

Abatement of pollution


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