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  Section: General Biotechnology / Genes & Genetic Engineering
 
 
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Genetic Engineering for Human Welfare

 
     
 

Animal and Plant Improvement

Transgenic Farm Animals
Production of transgenic animals through microinjection techniques will play a significant role in veterinary sciences as well as for human welfare. A farm animal can produce milk containing tens of gram of protein per liter, many times more than a liter of bacterial culture. The possibility of producing human pharmaceutical demonstrated when lactating mice secreted the active tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) in their milk. The t-PA is an enzymes which dissolves the blood clots responsible for coronary artery blockage that results in heart failure. John Me Pherson at Genzyme Co., in collaboration with K. Elbert and colleagues of Tuft University produced the first transgenic goat by using a goat beta-casein promoter gene linked to t-PA gene. The transgenic goat produced t-PA in quantities as compared to cell culture derived material. But goat peptide is slightly different from the culture derived t-PA. The goat peptide has two chains of peptide, whereas a single chain peptide was found in culture derived t-PA. Therefore, much work is needed in future.

Recently, Pharmaceutical Proteins Ltd. has made contract with Bayer Co. (Germany) to produce alpha-1 antitrypsin by using transgenic sheep. Alpha-1 antitrypsin, a glycoprotein, has now been approved in the U.S.A. as a replacement therapy. The scientists are of the opinion that about 12 kg sheep/lactation alpha-1 antitrypsin can be produced.

Production of transgenic cow has also been demonstrated in the Netherlands but unsuccessful. The eggs of cow collected from ovaries from slaughter houses were fertilized in vitro and microinjected with transgenes containing lactiferous gene. The embryos were implanted in the uterus of surrogate mothers. Out of 102 injected embryos, 21 animals were pregnant and 10 calves were borne. Two of these, one male and the other female, carried transgene. The male showed the presence of lactoferrin gene but not the female. A male never gives out milk. Till the animal secretes milk, the experiment is incomplete. But this experiment has given a hope for future.

Caseins are the major proteins of the milk. By transferring genetically manipulated casein genes to farm animals, the texture of cheese and heat stable dairy products can be improved. Casein genes have already been cloned and introduced into bovine genome.

Recently, T.J. Pandian and colleagues of Madurai Kamraj University have succeed in producing transgenic fishes by microinjecting growth hormone gene (human or bovine). A fish produces a large number of eggs at a time. It is much easier to work on eggs for gene manipulation. In developing countries like India, where majority of people suffer from malnutrition, the aquaculture programmes can be intensified for production on a large scale of good quality fishes.

 

Content

Cloned genes and production of chemicals

 

Human peptide hormone genes

 

 

Insulines

 

 

Somatotropin

 

 

Somatostatin

 

 

b-endorphin

 

Human interferon genes

 

Genes for vaccines

 

 

Vaccine for hepatitis-B virus

 

 

Vaccines for Rabies virus

 

 

Vaccines for poliovirus

 

 

Vaccine for foot and mouth disease virus

 

 

Vaccines for small pox virus

 

 

Malaria vaccines

 

 

DNA vaccines

 

Genes associated with genetic diseases

 

 

Phenylketonuria

 

 

Urokinase

 

 

Thalassaemia

 

 

Hemophilia

 

Enzyme engineering

 

Commercial chemicals

Prevention, diagnosis and cure of diseases

 

Prevention of diseases

 

Diagnosis of diseases

 

 

Parasitic diseases

 

 

Monoclonal antibodies

 

 

Antenatal diagnosis

 

Gene therapy

 

 

Types of gene therapy

 

 

Methods of gene therapy

 

 

Success of gene therapy

 

 

Potential of gene delivering system

 

 

Future needs of gene therapy in India

DNA profiling (fingerprinting)

 

Methods of DNA profiling

 

Application of DNA profiling

 

 

Genetic databank

 

 

Reuniting the lost children

 

 

Solving disputed problems of parentage, identity of criminals, rapists, etc

 

 

Immigrant dispute

 

Hurdles of DNA profiling

Animal and plant improvement

 

Transgenic Farm Animals

 

Crop Improvements

 

 

Transgenic plants

 

 

Nif gene transfer

 

 

Phaseolin gene transfer

 

 

Conversion of C3 plants to C4 plants

 

 

Herbicide resistant plants

 

 

Insect pest resistant plants

 

 

Plant improvement through genetic transformation

 

Crop Protection

 

 

Use of antagonists

 

 

Use of insecticides

Abatement of pollution

 

 
     
 
 
     



     
 
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