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  Section: General Biotechnology / Animal Biotechnology
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Animal Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture

Requirements for animal cell, tissue and organ culture
  Substrates for cell culture
  Substrate treatment
  Culture media
    Natural media
    Synthetic media
  Sterilization of glassware, equipments and culture media
  Isolation of animal material (tissue)
    Disaggregation of tissue
    Establishment of cell culture
Cultivation of animal cell en masse in bioreactor
Immobilized cell culture
Insect cell culture
Somatic cell culture
Organ culture
  Organ culture on plasma clots
  Organ culture on agar
  Organ culture in liquid medium
  Whole embryo culture
Valuable products from cell cultures
  Monoclonal antibodies
  Production of commercial products from insect culture

Somatic Cell Fusion
In animals fusion of two different cells and production of a hybrid cell have been successfully achieved. These hybrid cells have significant biotechnological applications in many more areas such as: (i) study of control of gene expression and differentiation, (ii) gene mapping, (iii) malignancy, (iv) viral replication, and (v) antibody production through hybridoma technology. In 1960s, in France, the hybrid cells were successfully produced from mixed cultures of two different cell lines of mouse.

Moreover, within the body fusion of myoblasts and formation of multinucleate fibers may be exemplified. They can also be allowed to fuse in vitro and form heterokaryons. Macrophages fuse around the foreign body or bacterial cells in the tissues. Bone cells are also known to undergo somatic cell fusion. Cells growing in culture are induced by some of the viruses such as 'Sendai virus' to fuse and form hybrids. This virus induces two different cells first to form heterokaryon (Fig. 6.7). During mitosis chromosome of heterokaryons are brought towards two poles which later on fuse to form hybrids. Removal of surface carbohydrates is necessary before establishment of cell fusion. Some chemicals such as polyethylene glycol also induce somatic cell fusion. It is interesting to note that the cells of taxonomically different animals can fuse and form hybrids. This suggests that there is no compatibility between membranes, nuclei, organelles of two different groups of animal cells (Sidebottom and Ringertz, 1984).
Production of somatic hybrids of two different cells by using Sendai virus (diagrammatic).

Fig. 6.7. Production of somatic hybrids of two different cells by using Sendai virus (diagrammatic).


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