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  Section: General Biotechnology / Animal Biotechnology
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Animal Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture

Requirements for animal cell, tissue and organ culture
  Substrates for cell culture
  Substrate treatment
  Culture media
    Natural media
    Synthetic media
  Sterilization of glassware, equipments and culture media
  Isolation of animal material (tissue)
    Disaggregation of tissue
    Establishment of cell culture
Cultivation of animal cell en masse in bioreactor
Immobilized cell culture
Insect cell culture
Somatic cell culture
Organ culture
  Organ culture on plasma clots
  Organ culture on agar
  Organ culture in liquid medium
  Whole embryo culture
Valuable products from cell cultures
  Monoclonal antibodies
  Production of commercial products from insect culture

Immobilized Cell Culture
The properties of microcarrier beads used for cell immobilization are that they develop charged surfaces, either positive or negative charges, for example, DEAE sephadex (diethyl -aminoethyl type of cross-linked dextran) developed positive charges, polysysteine negative charges, gelatin beads slightly positive or negative charges. The beads require surface coating for adhesion of sufficient number of cells, because energy is required for cell adhesion. In addition glass and ceramic materials are used as good carriers as they contain high surface energy.

In different types of bioreactors different materials such as glass spheres are packed for cell attachment. The materials increase surface area for cultivation of cells en masse. This type of bioreactor is called packed bed bioreactor. For a bioreactor of 100 liter capacity about 50 kg of 3 mm diameter spheres are used. This gives a total surface area of about 20m2.

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