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  Section: General Biotechnology / Animal Biotechnology
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Animal Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture

The most important areas of today's research which have potential economic value and prospects of commercialization are the cell and tissue culture based production of vaccines, monoclonal antibodies, pharmaceutical drugs, cancer research, genetic manipulation, etc.

Animal cell, tissue and organ can be cultured like plant cell, tissue and organs on artificial media in controlled conditions. A cell differentiates and grows into a large number of cells. Now-a-days several valuable products or medical use have been produced through animal cell culture or genetically engineered cells. However, demand of many others is increasing. Like plant cells, the animal cells of different types for desired colors, sources, etc. may be cultured in vitro by providing artificial conditions, and desired products can be obtained from them. One of the most remarkable examples are the monoclonal antibodies, vaccines, etc.

In animals tissue regeneration in amphibians and metamorphosis in insects are known since long time but cell and tissue of vertebrates were not cultured for a long time. In recent years, interests arose on cell and tissue culture of birds and mammals. The techniques have been much improved with the development of culture media, creation of microbe-free environment and controlled artificial conditions.

In 1907, Ross Harrison made first attempt to culture animal cells, and cultivated embryonic nerve cells of a frog by using hanging drop method. Thereafter, this method was extended and a wide range of mammalian cells were cultured in vitro. However, after supplementing with embryo extract of chick and plasma, cells proliferated well. These provide nutrients and proliferation factors. Moreover, cell culture method was quite improved after the discovery of antibiotics during 1940s. The significance of animal cell culture was increased when viruses were used to produce vaccines on animal cell cultures in late 1940s. Similarly during 1950s polio vaccine production on cultured cells increased the significance of animal cell culture technology (Anon, 1988).

Requirements for animal cell, tissue and organ culture
  Substrates for cell culture
  Substrate treatment
  Culture media
    Natural media
    Synthetic media
  Sterilization of glassware, equipments and culture media
  Isolation of animal material (tissue)
    Disaggregation of tissue (physical and enzymatic methods)
    Establishment of cell culture
Cultivation of animal cell en masse in bioreactor
Immobilized cell culture
Insect cell culture
Somatic cell culture
Organ culture
  Organ culture on plasma clots
  Organ culture on agar
  Organ culture in liquid medium
  Whole embryo culture
Valuable products from cell cultures


Monoclonal antibodies

  Production of commercial products from insect culture


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